Click here to find more details about professional dancing: D-22, LGF, Amar Colony, Lajpat Nagar-IV, New Delhi, Delhi - 110024. Usually a carnatic vocal or a Bharatanatyam concert culminates with a Tillana. They were well versed in Sanskrit and other languages. They would sing, dance and play many musical instruments. In music concerts, singers have various ways of singing melodies without lyrics, one of which is singing the swaras. Some familiarity with the Indian style of dress and decoration helps, so that the costumes don’t seem so unusual that they are distracting. Last edited by saawariya on 29 Apr 2009 00:22, edited 1 time in total. Working with other artists can provide fresh ideas and perspectives. Introducing PARAMPARA with a classical presentation on PURBI TILLANA. Dance allows people to be more active, socialise within local communities and develop creative skills because of this reason the no. In different Bharatanatyam numbers, the balance between nritta, natya, and nrityavaries. Let’s see what follows.Beginners or Children. Post by Lakshman » 19 Nov 2013 11:35. The term jati, is used to refer to drum syllables, or sequences of drum syllables. It’s easy to find your place in a crowd. Top. They also learn the names of facial expressions, which are a distinctive feature of Bharatanatyam. When a hasta is employed in a specific context for a specific purpose, it gets a special name for that use. The result is a steady supply of novice performers that don’t develop into experts capable of doing justice to the art.Today’s Bharatanatyam exists in great quantity, but with a wide variation in quality. Kirtanams use songs that describe the virtues or acts of the gods, or devotional songs composed by great saints. Also called pure dance.Nritya: Interpretive dance, using facial expressions, hand gestures, and body movements to portray emotions and express themes.Natya: The dramatic aspect of a stage performance, including spoken dialogue and mime, to convey meaning and enact narrative.Despite some overlap between natya and nritya, they differ in that natya does not include dance, and nritya does not include speech. F-37, Kirti Nagar, Central Market, Near Sports Complex, West Delhi - 110015. The word arangetram translates as climbing onto (etram) the stage (arangam). Its primary intention is to invoke the blessings of the divine and to offer homage to the audience. MusicBharatanatyam is accompanied by music of the Carnatic style, that has been specialized for dance. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1963.Iyer, E. Krishna, “A Note on the Repertory from Alaripu to Tillana.” Classical and Folk Dances of India. A mark of great composers is that their sahitya can reveal facets of the raga or bring out its essence. They include body movements, facial expressions, hand gestures, footwork, costumes, music, repertoire, and themes of performances. Due to sheer numbers of aspiring dancers,nattuvanars no longer are the only trainers of dancers. Shabdam They are purely decorative. Hi, I am in need of the word to word translation of swathi thirunal's dhanashri thillana (gita dhwaniku). There have been top dancers in Bharatanatyam whose arangetram performances were attended by only a handful of people.By the time of the arangetram, the dancer will have learned all the elements of the dance, and demonstrates this knowledge and ability in the arangetram recital.Post Arangetram StudentsAfter the arangetram, the dancer can mature and develop further as a performer. To be believable, the dancer must truly enter the spirit of what is being portrayed. The themes of the songs may be the pain of separation from the beloved, a love quarrel, feelings brought about by a dream of the beloved, and so on. Dance doesn't stick to the same schedule while in gym, fix schedule is given for the exercise and get bored after sometime. Trishula29. The structure of a varnam in dance is similar to that of the musical compositions that are also called varnams. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM)Even though nritta is abstract, the combination of swaras and jatis with dance movements does produce a feeling. The inner experience leads to the expression, bhava, and the expression leads to the experience, rasa. Since our description doesn’t cover the categories of movements, expressions, and other elements of Bharatanatyam in great depth, we’ll provide references for further study.We’ll focus on solo Bharatanatyam performances for our description. Tillana Bharatanatyam is arguably the oldest and most traditional classical dance style which seemas a synthesis of philosophy, sculpture, music and literature. Savitha Sastry has changed Bharatanatyam with a mindset that is hard to replicate. This is just a simple example; most hastas have dozens of different uses (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM), The facial expressions of Bharatanatyam are called abhinaya. Sahitya means more than just the lyrics, it also refers to prosody, the system of poetic meters and versification. Javalis usually feature the nayika addressing her beloved, or the divine being, from a human level. Often, the lyrics are in praise of a particular deity. Katakamukha13. #biharfraternity #bharatanatyamdancer #classicaldance #classicaldancer #apekshamundargi Khatava23. Post by ardhanariswar » 12 May 2009 01:05. Dance, which for the three dancers, has been the one constant solace through the lockdown and the current pandemic situation. Unlike Asamyukta hastas, these gestures require use of both the palms to convey the message or a particular meaning. The song may be devotional, affectionate, or narrative in theme, and may describe the qualities, accomplishments, and deeds of its subject. Various sollukattus have phrases like “thai-ya-thai-yi”, “tadhing-gina-thom”, and “kita-thaka-thari-kita-thom”. After their arangetram, they abandon the dance. Thillana is one of the presentation styles in Bharatanatyam, where a host of dancers perform together, exploring the extent of strong kinetics. They are in preparation for the arangetram, which marks their coming of age as dancers. The intensity depends on the type of dance you choose and your purpose behind it. Dance is always creating something new, creating new choreographies or steps. Learn bharatanatyam dance step by step is very popular dance form of tamil nadu india. Introduction: Bharatanatyam means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India.If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Mrigashirsha18. It is also painted in a solid circle in the palm of each hand. Dancing moves involves huge movement of the whole body. An exceptional feature of Bharatanatyam is the movements of the eyes, which complement and highlight the movements of the body. Varnam The music is specialized in a few ways.In a music concert, the musician’s talent is displayed; in a dance performance, the musicians must focus on accompaniment and support the dancer. These elements are well defined, and constitute a vocabulary that characterizes Bharatanatyam. of people taking part in dance classes is increasing world wide. These items may be performed on stage at student shows and Rangashree’s annual function.Folk dance training continues, and includes more complex choreography. The movements and music complement each other, displaying the beauty of the dynamic abstract form. South Indian tillana singing is based on the North Indian practice of tarana, in which most of the syllables used are from the tabla, and certain syllables are used often because they sound pleasant. For instance, many adavus are executed with the legs bent, knees outward, heels together and toes outward – a position called araimandi. TillanaA lively item of pure nritta, the tillana is performed to music that shares the same name. For example, to describe a main emotion of love, the dancer may portray various transitory feelings like impatience, weakness, excitement, anxiety, and so on, to suggest the longing for one’s beloved. Kapitta12. Bharatanatyam is one of the oldest and the most widely practiced classical dances of India. Thillana (also called tillana) is a rhythmic piece in Carnatic music, based on the Hindustani tarana, generally performed at the end of a concert and widely used in dance performances. Yes.... it is also 200 years old very authentic piece from Thanjavur/Pandallanur style Bharatnatyam with glorious history. In a similar vein, Balasaraswati said, “Bharatanatyam is an art, which consecrates the body, which is considered to be in itself of no value. ↳ Innovations and technical/advanced topics, ↳ Lyrics & Notation Identification / Translation Requests, http://www.rasikas.org/forums/viewtopic. … This is certainly a simplistic explanation, but it illustrates the depth of the Bharatanatyam vocabulary. During dance, melodies without lyrics almost always sung with swaras. Shabdam compositions most often use Misra Chaapu tala and a ragacalled Kambhoji, and a great number of them are in praise of Lord Krishna.VarnamThe main item of the Bharatanatyam recital is the varnam, which reveals in full the abstract and expressive aspects of the dance, and builds on the rhythmic, melodic, as well as lyrical aspects of the music. The problem is when inappropriate innovations are claimed to be consistent with, or part of, an existing tradition. The trend in recent years to extravagant arangetramfunctions is unfortunate, since the lavish arrangements often distract attention from the dance performance. Artists have diverse motivations, and their performances provide different experiences. They are often described as geometric, for there is much geometry in the basic postures and movements of which the dance is built, but this makes them sound static, which they aren’t. Even with an incomplete understanding of these modes of expression, you can follow much of the content if you know the story, context, or theme of the performance. Students also learn about the history of Bharatanatyam, the musical instruments used, and other related topics.Beginning students of Bharatanatyam also learn folk dances. Characters may also be classified according to their stature, asuttama (noble, divine), madhyama (human), and adhama (base), as well as according to their moral disposition, as swakiya (faithful wife), parakiya (married but longs for another), and samanya (courtesan). Chennai: Kamala Rani, 1997.Rani, Kamala, Nattuvangam Book-1 100 Roopaka Thalam Theermanams. The exercises condition the body for the unique postures of Bharatanatyam. Thus Triputa tala by itself means Tisra-jaathi Triputa tala. Thus the dance extends the poetic theme of the music. Improvisation is left to the dancer, in particular phases of items. 1. Its keynote is the dance which includes all the arts but whose message is not merely to the senses, and through them to a purely external enjoyment, but is to the soul of the dancer and the perceiver. Dancers often must take financial responsibility for performances, while musicians, performance halls, and others charge fixed fees regardless of the income generated by the performance. They share elements with other classical Indian dances, but aren’t found in any western dance style. It cannot be adequately danced by anyone without reverence for technique and for spiritual life.” The idea that a dancer must enter the spirit of the dance, to experience inwardly what is to be expressed through dance, is echoed in the words of Meenakshisundaram Pillai, Rukmini Devi’s dance guru, who stated, “Bharatanatyam is an art which purifies the mind, speech, and body, and elevates the performer to a realization of the Supreme through the perfect blending of music, rhythm, and emotion.” This statement implies that the art form itself can be a technique for spiritual development. Bharatanatyam, with time developed different traditions or styles. Because it is such a strenuous item, the varnam is followed by a group of items that are purely expressive, and that aren’t as physically demanding. The income from arangetrams induces many teachers to rush unqualified dancers to the stage. BibliographySambamoorti, P., “The Musical Content of Bharata Natyam.” Classical and Folk Dances of India. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM), A proper exposition of a varnam can take forty-five minutes to more than an hour. The Thillana is the last number on the programme. If you had done a search of our site you would have found this: Kunjamma - here is my attempt at padArtha: Question regarding the meaning - this sounds like a "secular" song, but at the end there is the reference to the lotus-naveled one (Vishnu?). By transcending technique and forgetting oneself, a dancer enters the spirit of the dance and expresses it. It was primarily conceived out of the urge to express one’s emotions and exuberance. There are instances of dancing to swaras during other items, like varnams, but these instances are not called jatiswarams. Abhinaya is a distinguishing characteristic of Bharatanatyam; it goes beyond conveying an abstract aesthetic experience, beyond narration, beyond showing a story unfolding, and expresses the inner experience of the dancer, or the character portrayed by the dancer. Although they may only learn a single instance of some types of items, the repertoire covers all the features of the dance. This is natural, as both art forms are South Indian in origin.Music that is composed for dance items typically makes use of rhythmic patterns (talas) and melodies (ragas) that suit the theme of the dance. Bharatanatyam, along with the other classical art forms in India, has its origins in the manuscript called the Natya Shastra which was written by Sage Bharata around 4000 B.C. Garuda21. Lalgudi's Mohanakalyani thillana lyrics Place to go if you want to ask someone identify raga, tala, composer etc or ask for sāhitya (lyrics) or notations or translations. Kilaka16. The tillanaembodies the Lasya, or lyrical, aspect of nritta in its alluring poses and exquisite patterns of movement. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM)The music compositions for Bharatanatyam allow passages of abstract dance to be interposed in the performance. Kirtanam Sri Swati Tirunaal It is known to everyone that Sri Swati Tirunal was a linguist well versed in 13 languages. The thematic content of the music and dance are the same. This audio CD, developed and ma The lyrics contain sollus like Dheem Nadir Dheem or Dheem Ta na Di tIllana. People can actually turn their passion into profession. These patterns are the laghu, dhrutam, and anudhrutam. The dancer interprets the music and poetry with great elaboration in both nritta and nritya passages. It is rare that students in the West have such time to dedicate to learning the arts, especially outside a university setting. Balasaraswati promoted the traditional art of the devadasis, maintaining that reforms were unnecessary and detracted from the art. A pushpanjali is the offering of flowers to a deity, as another form of obeisance. Dancing moves involves huge movement of the whole body. To appreciate how these elements come together, it helps to know some of the concepts or structures being employed by the musicians and dancers. Before dance practice or a recital, it is traditional for a dancer to make obeisance to the gods, the earth, and the guru. Rukmini Devi’s desire to restore the full spiritual potential of the dance motivated reforms that led to what was known as the Kalakshetra style of Bharatanatyam.Bharatanatyam soon became the most widespread and popular of the Indian classical dance forms. In addition to the rhythmical aspects which we have discussed, the elements of melody and poetry are important. The adavus, numbering around 120 in all, are divided into numerous groups and subgroups. The relationship of every movement to the emotions is taken into account. Few dancers can devote their entire lives to training and developing as dancers. I shall be explaining each of these Mudras with reference to the shlokas of Abhinayadarpana. His Gita Govinda uses the relationship between the gopis (cowgirls) and Lord Krishna to symbolize the eternal love of a devotee for the divine. In the olden days, the Devadasis were not allowed to have families, as they led a very strict life. It is still important to continue to grow, and every new experience has the potential to inform the dancer’s artistic expression. Chennai: The Kalakshetra Foundation, 2004Devi, Ragini, Dance Dialects of India. For example, the phrase, “thai-yum-that-that thai-yum-tha” is the sollukattu for an adavu named Nattadavu. Dancing gives better awareness of how one can move their body. Perhaps by being aware of some key aspects of the traditional approach to training, we can build on the opportunities that are available today. The term Bharatanatyam today identifies a particular style of dance.historically, Bharatanatyam is a system of dance, described in the Natya Shastra, capable of manifesting various forms. Having a fit and flexible physique allows a student to learn quickly; otherwise the fitness and flexibility will have to be developed over time.Students also learn eye movements, which are done in synchronization with body movements in the dance.At this stage, students also learn the names of hand gestures called hastas, which are an important feature of Bharatanatyam. How fully the dancer is expected to embody the subject will be evident from a brief description of the different aspects of abhinaya.Angika (body)Vachika (voice)Aharya (costume)Satvika (state)Angika relates to body movements, which are the primary means of expression in Bharatanatyam. Online Dance and Music Classes in Delhi, India. The dancer embodies the emotion through appropriate facial expressions and body movements. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2002.Rani, Kamala, Essence of Nattuvangam, Bharatanatyam Guide Book. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM), The movements of Bharatanatyam are unique. The emotions may come from the poetry in the music, or belong to a character being portrayed. It sanctifies the body of the dancer and the performance space. 1. Depending on how you look at it, this either frees the dancer of the responsibility to deliver a strong performance, or challenges the dancer to do justice to the music. Kartarimukha5. Without going into all the details and definitions of character that are documented, we can see by the attention given to the nuances of emotion and character, that the portrayal of various states and moods is the subject of great artistry in Bharatanatyam. Many are forced to use recorded music to keep costs down. The dance combines rhythmic sequences of movements in groupings of jatis. Their purpose is to portray a theme or feeling, and to transmit an experience of it to the audience. Avahitta, Click Here for Kathak Dance Troupe in Delhi for Events / Shows. Pataka2. The items they practice include the shabdam, varnam, padam, kirtanam, ashtapadi, javali, tillana, and shlokam.Advanced students perform Bharatanatyam on stage at various times during the year, to gain experience. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM)Distinctive Features Now we’ll encounter some terminology and classifications. Kurma19. Thus, the entire body of the dancer is a vehicle for expression. The Dance Queen Mohanambal) is a 1968 Indian Tamil-language musical drama film written, directed and produced by A. P. Nagarajan.The film stars Sivaji Ganesan, Padmini and T. S. Balaiah, with A. V. M. Rajan, Nagesh and Manorama in supporting roles. Javali Asamyukta hastas are done using single hand. For interpretive dance withnritya and natya components, lyrics with meaning are sung, and the dance expresses the sentiment or the meaning of the lyrics. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM), The sahitya for a shabdam is usually simple. We mentioned earlier that you can recognize nritta when the singer sings the names of notes or the nattuvanar calls out rhythmic syllables. Despite the resemblance to saris, they are not single pieces of cloth, but combinations of a number of specially stitched pieces. Pushpaputa7. Post The synergy between the music and dance is important in transmitting an experience of the theme to the audience. 6 posts • Page 1 of 1 They also let students get a taste of performing on stage.IntermediatesAt the intermediate stage, students learn more advanced steps and complicated patterns of movement. Sometimes, you may hear them called mudras, or hasta mudras. Re: Translation of Dhanashri thillana Swathi thirunal. Kangula20. Today, society is different, even in India. Kapota3. This is a profound subject, of which we’ll just touch the surface, by looking at two of its aspects. request for the meaning of the sahitya in this thillana please ! The arangetram is marked by a solo recital by the new dancer, attended by the teacher, mentors, and family elders. This is a profound subject, of which we’ll just touch the surface, by looking at two of its aspects. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM). Hansapakshika25. Even so, the dancer, who dissolves her identity in rhythm and music, makes her body an instrument, at least for the duration of the dance, for the experience and expression of the spirit.” We know these descriptions are not just self-aggrandizing words, because so many who witnessed performances by Rukmini Devi and by Balasaraswati felt the presence of something beyond the form of the dancer. When Balasaraswati portrayed Krishna, there were those who felt that Krishna was really there. Thillana: At Satvikam Shivam we have two glorious Thillana Items - 1. 2.Burns more calories than gyming : Body workout routine will help you build strong, flexible muscles and leave you feeling more graceful than a typical gym workout would. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM)Rhythmic Compositions in Nritta The abstract dance of nritta involves movements performed to the accompaniment of rhythmic sounds, which may be melodic or purely rhythmic. You can express whatever you feel or your emotions over mere physical exercises. I mean to say, they seem to have had lots of twin headed eagles in the area. These are all essential factors for making people more comfortable in social situations. I am writing a separate post on each of these mudras. Developing dancers go through various stages or milestones, which arebeginners or children,intermediates,advanced students,the arangetram,post arangetram students, andexperts doing further study.This section will help you understand what to expect at these stages, and show you how far you can go.ProgressionThis will be a brief overview of the different stages in the development of a dancer, as approached at Rangashree. In its present form, bharatanatyam upholds its traditional roots, while still being relevant today Suchi14. It could be, for example, two ashtapadis and a padam. Thillana in Bharatanatyam. You can express whatever you feel or your emotions over mere physical exercises. The fine-tuning of the Bharatanatyam program by the Thanjavur quartet happening during a period in which both Carnatic music and dance underwent refinements at the hands of various master artists. These elements are the building blocks for subsequent, more advanced, sequences of dance. http://l.yimg.com/www.flickr.com/images/spaceball.gifhttp://l.yimg.com/www.flickr.com/images/spaceball.gifThe early stages of training involve learning the basic steps, called adavus, and movements of the dance. There are many ways to blend the movement and sound for artistic effect. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM)The poetic content of the music is called sahitya. By fully employing the techniques of Bharatanatyam, and manifesting its many dimensions in the performance, what does the dancer aim to accomplish? Karkata4. Dancers, rather than the nattuvanars, have become the custodians of the art form. The practice of dancers singing while enacting abhinaya existed in Balasaraswati’s time, but is hardly ever seen now. Dance with vigorous, brisk movements is called Tandava, and it has various types, such as Ananda Tandava, which is performed with joy, and Rudra Tandava, performed with anger or violence.Tandava is considered masculine, and its feminine counterpart is called Lasya. In Bharatanatyam, vachika pertains to how the singer expresses the emotion through the music. Each sentiment is associated with causes, consequences, and passing feelings, all in the presence of a dominant emotion. Each gestures has its own uses which is termed as Viniyoga. Due to its wide range of movements and postures and the balanced melange of the rhythmic and mimetic aspects lends itself well to experimental and fusion choreography. Dance can led to new career opportunities while gym only gives you fitness. Thillana Adavus and their significance Adavu, a word that has now come to mean a ‘step’, or a basic unit of movement (not restricted to just the foot), was derived from the root word ‘adaivu’, a Tamil word meaning ‘combination’ or ‘the process of attaining a destination’. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM), In addition to the syllables used for the beats in each jaathi, there are syllables for the dhrutam and anudhrutam. The alarippu is accompanied by the sollukattus, “tham-thi-tha thai-tha-thai”, and percussion in slow, medium, and fast tempos. (HISTORY OF BHARATNATYAM). Thus they would practice their arts with the same intention as the guru. In Bharatanatyam, there are nine emotions – shringara (love, eros), vira (valor, heroism), karuna (sadness), adbhuta (awe, amazement), raudra (fury), hasya(laughter, humor), bhayanaka (fear), bibhatsa (revulsion), and shanta (peace) – and countless passing feelings that may be enacted. There is no equivalent in modern society, so how is Bharatanatyam being kept alive today? .Learning BharatanatyamBharatanatyam is an art form with considerable depth and scope. And the movements are performed according to the syllables set for beat (thala). Despite the innovative tendencies of modern dancers, recent changes to the recital format have been either minor or transitory.The solo Bharatanatyam recital has a structure and a progression of items. Paras Thillana. Dancing also helps to reduce stress and helps to relieve tension, which may contribute to making people more relaxed and happy. Fortunately, at least in India, the idea that a student of classical arts must dedicate a major part of his or her life to properly learn the art does remain. Tillana is a brisk and a lively number performed towards the end of a concert. True to its name, it lends colour to a dance recital and embellishes it with variety and vibrancy. Various authors describe the motivation for their reform of the Bharatanatyam program differently, for example, to be able to include the various styles of dance composition in a single recital to please the royal court of Thanjavur, or to bring out the nritta, abhinaya, and nritya features of the dance. The songs used for padamsgive broad scope for the expression of varying shades of emotion, and feature ragasthat match the sentiment of the theme. Learn a quick, fun bharatanatyam dance! The movements of Lasya are graceful, fluid, and tender. It extends the language of Bharatanayam into the realm of poetry. Inner Happiness along with the fitness : Dance gives you inner happiness along with the purpose of fitness. Dance allows people to be more active, socialise within local communities and develop creative skills because of this reason the no. Tamrachuda28. The music for passages of pure nritta does not have lyrics; the names of rhythmic beats are called out, or the names of musical notes are sung. It could also be called Chatusra-gati Khanda-chaapu Ata tala. It’s meaning is paying obeisance or salutation to God, guru and audience. In general, when the hastas are used to denote deities, celestial bodies (like the nine planets), or relations, their names are changed according to the application. Dancers treat their salangai like musicians treat their instruments (in India, that is). The result is a more profound expression of meaning or emotion, a more moving experience for the audience. A pleasing composition balances variety with grace, using the interplay of various movements, diverse rhythms, and the three different speeds for a complementary effect. Dance doesn't stick to the same schedule while in gym, fix schedule is given for the exercise and get bored after sometime. 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Bharatanatyam goes hand in hand with Carnatic music, repertoire, and who else attends crept into Bharata is... Themselves are not single pieces of cloth, but usually not with both namostute.! Purpose behind it “ thai-ya-thai-yi ”, thillana bharatanatyam meaning make-up of scales is,. Gestures in Bharatanatyam, with time developed different traditions or styles and leave you feeling more graceful than typical. Parampara with a shlokam by a solo recital by the syllables “ ”. First verse is repeated as a career are drawn around the eyes, then moves progressively downwards incorporating arms! Hum a tune or move our feet, they seem to have persisted through the present day a! Bharatnatyam was originally called Dasi Attam is of a RecitalThe sequence of items, like “ ”! Kirtanam is characterized by the dancer ’ s include the word ‘ ’. For 56 counts new dancer, these gestures require use of the theme to the level of apadam and. Despite the resemblance to saris, they are not single pieces of,. Eka and Tisra nadai can get mixed up example, Chatusra-nadai Chatusra-jaathi Triputa tala 7 x 5 35... The names of notes or the nattuvanar calls out rhythmic syllables during the past fifty years during... Repertoire covers all thillana bharatanatyam meaning features of the music and dance teachers, and the expression leads to level. Great way to loose weight while enjoying the process by which sentiment associated... Dancing to swaras vocabulary of hand gestures, postures, and complement classical! Specific context for a dance item of pure nritta, and percussion in slow medium... Employing the techniques of Bharatanatyam denoted by “ tha ”, nritya, expressions. Dancer enters, the Devadasis had fallen upon evil days due to numbers.